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POLITICAL MANAGEMENT


HOW ARE POWER POSITIONS ON THE STATE ACTORS IN NETWORKS ARE POSSIBLE, OR “CHESHIRE CAT GOVERNANCE STRATEGY”
Mikhaylova O.V. pp.6-18

Abstract: The article is devoted to the place and role of the network model in the practice of modern public administration. Analyzing the advantages and limitations of this model, the author raises the question of positioning the state in alliance network and its management capacity to maintain horizontal coordination of actions of participants. Network governance in the study is defined as the formation and maintenance of the interdependencies between the state and non-state actors, while maintaining an active role of the state and its responsibility for decisions and implemented solutions. Relying on advanced scientific developments of metamanagement, the author puts forward the idea of the need for the state of optimal network structures management strategy that allows it to retain positions of power without compromising network performance. As such, the proposed “strategy Cheshire cat”, defined as the institutional ability to “dissolve” the state in numerous and diverse contacts with non-state actors and “manifest” in whole or in part, in situations complicating movement towards achieving the goal. State status in the network structures allows him to act as an equal basis with others, and to incorporate the most important social values and interests in the decision-making process, based on indirect methods overbearing regulation. Without the participation of the State authorities can not be ensured efficiency of network management. This approach allows to combine different models of management based on its strategic and tactical priorities.

Key words: management network, network governance, network management model, network management, metamanagement.

NATIONAL MINORITY POLICIES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA AT THE TURN OF THE 21ST CENTURY
Barinov I.I., Pantin V.I. pp. 19-30

Abstract: The article deals with the key trends and characteristics of policy towards national minorities in Slovakia and Romania at the end of the 20th — the beginning of the 21st century. The main thesis is that while there are certain features common to both these countries, they implement different models of national (ethnic) relations regulation; their historical features determine this difference. One of the key differences is that Slovakia gained its independent statehood relatively recently, while Romania has far more longstanding traditions of construction and development of statehood; hence the differences in the position of national minorities and the state policy towards them. For example, in Slovakia, relations between Hungarians and Slovaks remain quite strained, while in Romania, despite the problem of Transylvania, relations between Romanians and Hungarians are less conflicting. The authors come to conclusion that prospects of effective regulation of the position of national minorities in Slovakia and Romania will largely depend on the possibility of a constructive dialogue between the governments of these countries, national minorities and the leadership of the European Union. To ensure such a dialogue, on the one hand, governments of Slovakia and Romania should take a responsible approach to regulation of national relations; on the other hand, the EU leadership should consider the historical and cultural background of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in its relevant policies.

Key words: national minorities, Slovakia, Romania, European Union, ethno-political processes, regulation of interethnic relations.

PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING AND GOVERNABILITY OF THE STATE IN BRAZIL
Blinova E.A. pp.31-44

Abstract: Due to the world is changing very quickly modern states should apply different development strategies. Now states are seeking to reach not only the stateness, i. e. to provide internal and external security and legitimacy, but also are aimed at improving the governability and competitiveness. Despite serious resource base, in Brazil there are many complicated social problems — inequality of the black population, marginalized population of favell, aggravating the problem of drug trafficking and crime, etc. To solve these problems the Brazilian Workers Party has taken the path of innovation not only in technology, but also in the social sphere. Moreover, emphasis was placed to increase the social inclusiveness through the special institute of participatory budgeting at the level of civil society. The cycle of participatory budgeting lasts during one year and the citizens decide through public meetings and negotiations how to spend money on new projects in urban infrastructure, such as hospitals, schools, street paving. Participatory budgeting combines two models of democracy — direct democracy at the level of regional assemblies and representative democracy at the level of Delegates and Council of Participatory Budgeting. In the article we study the experience of the participatory budgeting in Brazil in terms of several parameters: 1) the degree of democratic process, that is, the extent to which people, not the government, control the process; 2) the proportion of public funds invested in the process; 3) The legal status of the process; 4) social justice of distribution of results.

Key words: Brazil, participatory budgeting, redistribution, inclusiveness, citizens engagement, governance.

SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF POLITICS


EUROPE IN PERCEPTION OF HER NEIGHBORS: PROBLEMS, METHODS AND RESULTS OF CONTEMPORARY FOREIGN RESEARCHES
Evtushenko A.S., Sazantovich A.B., Samarkina I.V. pp.45-60

Abstract: The article covers foreign researches on perception of Europe and the European Union by the states which are situated in geographical proximity to Russia: countries of the Eastern Partnership programme (Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, and Moldova) as well as Turkey and Abkhazia. It analyzes researches of three groups: sociological studies made by the EU official experts; sociological studies made by independent researchers; articles based on the official EU documents. Particular attention is paid to analysis of the Russia’s image in the context of forming in the neighboring countries their own perception of Europe. It comes to the conclusion that perception of Europe and the European Union has strong ties with the conception about own country and identity as well as with the problem of choice of the proper vector for the state development. Armenia is characterized by perception of the common values with the EU. On the contrary, Azerbaijan’s index of common values with the EU lower than the average one across the Eastern Partnership countries. Being an important trade and economic partner of the EU, Azerbaijan is aimed at the relationships on equal terms, balancing between Europe and Russia. Georgia connects with European cooperation her issues of democratization and peaceful transformation of existing conflicts. Hence, it seems important an integration of European values into Georgian mentality and culture. Abkhazia considers her relations with the EU in the context of strengthening the symmetry of her cooperation with Russia. Moldova represents a special case. This country has a strong European identity. Besides, in her public consciousness there is a constant presence of the «third» represented by Russia. In Ukraine the EU is considered as an important partner of foreign policy and a counterbalance to Russia. In Belarus, on the contrary, the assessment of her relations with the EU has become more critical. It is strengthen the perception that cooperation with Russia within the Eurasian Customs Union is more compatible with economic and energy expectations of Belarus. Thus, it is revealed that in the social consciousness on the post-soviet area there is a so called “triangle of perception” of geopolitical images, It is represented by the idea that the conception about own country and its identity is reflected in the context of two significant Others: Europe and Russia.

Key words: Europe, EU, Eastern partnership, Turkey, European integration, identity, perception of Europe.

RELIGIOUS TRANSGRESSION АND RELIGIOUS IDENTITY OF YOUTH IN THE FRONTIER TERRITORIES OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN SEA REGION
Topchiev M.S., Dryagalov V.S. pp.61-82

Abstract: The article deals with the research of the particularity of young people’s religious identity formation on the frontier territories of the Northern Caspian region and the influence of modern transgressive processes on it. In polycultural region with a high index of mosaicism with the existence of intensive migration flows the formation of religious identity comes with the particularity of frontier territories. The goal of the research is the detection of the main vectors of religious identity formation and the passing of transgressive processes and the reflection of these processes in the young people’s world outlook as well. The main methodology of the research was a frontier approach which allowed studying the territory of the Northern Caspian region as frontier, the territory ‘between’, where historically the processes of active cross-cultural contacts and cultural borrowings have been taking place. Transgressive processes in any sphere — cultural, political, religious are passing more actively and dynamically precisely here. The main methods of collection and the analysis of empirical information of the research was a questionnaire poll, a depth interview, a focus group interview, the analysis of one-dimensional and two-dimensional distributions, a grouping of data, a comparison exercise, the analysis of measures of central tendency, a correlation and dispersive analysis, t-tests. In the result of the research the change of young people’s value orientations has been evinced which were caused by the change of confessional landscape; the main vectors of religious transgression and the differentiation of respondents’ attitude to this process have been observed as well. According to the results of the research work, the majority of responders has had a neutral attitude to the process of religious transgression or relates with understanding, if this transition was in the frames of traditional for these territories religions; and they have negative attitude in the case if it was a process of transition to nontraditional religion. For the polyconfessional northern Caspian region the vector of transition from Christianity to Islam is more peculiar.

Key words: a poly-confessional region, religious transgression, religious identity, Islam, Christianity, values, youth, frontier, Northern Caspian Sea region.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES


THE BRITISH LABOUR AND CONSERVATIVES FOREIGN POLICY IMAGE CAMPAIGNS FROM LATE 1990S TO 2010S
Kharitonova E.M. pp.83-97

Abstract: The article researches and compares the United Kingdom government initiatives aimed at renewing the UK image abroad. One of these campaigns was launched by the T. Blair Labour Government, and the other programme was initiated by the Conservative and Liberal Democrats Coalition Government and later continued under the D. Cameron Conservative government. The British elites from different political camps are looking for a balance between showcasing the country’s traditional achievements and heritage and projecting a more modern image of the UK. After the attempts of the T. Blair Labour government to significantly change British image abroad, the establishment proceeded in a more balanced way, paying attention to interaction between different government bodies and agencies. At the same time the representatives of the leading British political parties connect the country’s image, its influence and attractiveness with the nation’s prosperity and security and use social and economic indicators to assess the effectiveness of implemented programmes.

Key words: United Kingdom foreign policy, Labour party, Conservative party, country image, soft power.

TOPONYMY OF NETWORK LANDSCAPE IN ONLINE-SPACE
Ryabchenko N.A. pp.98-115

Abstract: This article discusses the development and transformation of of toponomy of landscape network in online-space and their impact on the development of the social space. Identifying out and describing the two phases of the network landscape toponymy: a step of forming a technological structure and stage of social engineering — the author explores the practice of using information and communication technologies and innovative practices of social engineering implemented by online-space, such as crowdsourcing and civic applications. The article defines the toponomy of landscape network in online-space as a process of formation and transformation of online names, analysis of their influence on the processes occurring in the socio-political reality. Notable online names, defining, and identifying the topomony of network landscape in online space: search engines; social platforms; online-representative government; private sites; email services; online media; crowdsourcing and civic applications. The author consider the domain name system, which has served as the unit of construction and identification of the network landscape in online-space, which forms the structure and allows to operate some of its parts as microsystems, creating whole ecosystems. Also analyzes the process of obtaining a Russian Cyrillic domain and socio-political consequences of its functioning. This article describes the changing structural features of the toponyms of the network landscape in online space, leading to the identification of the socio-political processes at the user level and allows to apply for their assessment, analysis and forecasting new methods and tools, including network analysis, that allows to consider online-space as a global social graph and the user interaction and content that they generate — as a new form of civic positioning — digital activism.

Key words: online-space, a network of landscape, blogger, social network, crowdsourcing, civic applications, digital activism, online media, cybersquatting, domain.

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN RUSSIAN PUBLIC DISCOURSE: TOWARDS TO A NEW INSTITUTIONAL PARADIGM
Votchenko E.S. pp.116-130

Abstract: This scientific article touches a vital topic of contemporary relations between business and government — public-private partnerships in Russian system of public discourse. Analyzing the approaches and methodology of formation and development of business and government relations, the author tried to summarize the accumulated experience of interaction between public law entities and business structures. The article analyzes the historical aspect of the topic of this study, the paper is referred to the vision of the President of the Russian Federation, and also analyzes the regional aspect of social partnership. In the end, the author makes an interesting conclusion that in the modern scientific community is formed and becomes stable a new institutional paradigm. Corporate social responsibility in the narrow sense of the definition goes beyond charity and philanthropy, and today it is expressed in a broad sense — as corporate citizenship, which implies mutual responsibility of business and government to the public.

Key words: public-private partnerships, interactions between business and government, business and government relations, corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, social investments, institutional approach, civil society.

PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL THEORY


CLARIFY THE SUBJECT OF “SOLIDARITY” IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY (ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN CONCEPTS)
Kuzmenko I.S. pp.131-137

Abstract: The text of the article reveals the contents of the modern concept of solidarity in the works of prominent representatives of both domestic and foreign sociological theory. The author proceeds from the fact that the reason due to which the concept of solidarity for a long time out of the scientific use of sociologists is that in itself a phenomenon referred to this concept, is extremely difficult, which makes it problematic its unambiguous definition and operating them in the construction of concrete sociological theories. In the context of the designated problem made an overview of the basic concepts of solidarity.

Key words: solidarity, social system, society, the concept of solidarity.

PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY


PERSONAL REGULATORS OF STRESS COPING STRATEGIES AMONG THE SUBJECTS OF GROUP ACTIVITIES
Sovmiz Z.R. pp.138-152

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of personal regulators of stress coping by subjects of group activity. The aim of the research is to define peculiarities of interconnection between group and individual coping-strategies and personal characteristics (using the example of sportsmen of team sports as subjects of group activity, for whom high level of stressogenity is characteristic). Methods of psychodiagnosis and mathematical statistics are used. The research results show that personal parameters influence differently the probability of a group activity subject’s choice of constructive or destructive team and individual strategies of stress coping. The difference is that some personal parameters strengthen the probability of choosing adaptive copings, others- reduce the probability of using disadaptive and dysfunctional ones. Components of social intelligence reduce destructive copings, while the trainer’s encouraging sportsman’s autonomy, components of psychosocial maturity, communicative and organizational abilities and conflict avoidance increase the possibility the sportsman chooses constructive coping. Emotional intelligence and socio-psychological adaptation have a dual action depending on the level of the group development. In more developed groups these parameters strengthen adaptive copings, in less developed teams they reduce the probability of destructive coping-strategies. The excessively high level of empathy among group subjects, which are less developed in socio-psychological parameters, causes reduction of adaptive copings. The research results enable us to foresee the subject’s reaction to stress depending on his personal peculiarities. Thus, the resources of enforcing team adaptive coping-strategies for group subjects are primarily components of emotional intelligence, socio-psychological adaptation, as well as the trainer’s encouraging sportsman’s autonomy, components of psychosocial maturity, communicative and organizational abilities and conflict avoidance as a way to settle conflicts.

Key words: the subject of group activities, individual and group coping strategies, emotional intelligence.

LABOUR PSYCHOLOGY


QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT THE ATTITUDES TOWARDS CREDIT AND ITS PSYCHOMETRIC VALIDATION
Diomin A.N., Kireeva O.V., Pedanova E.Y. pp.153-166

Abstract: The authors discuss development of a questionnaire “Attitude towards credits” based on V. N. Myasishchev’s model of person’s relationship and S. L. Rubenstein’s approach that suggest that a person is an author of attitudes towards the world, other people, objects, circumstances and events, to him/herself. The questionnaire is focused on diagnosis of three components of the attitude towards credits: cognitive, motivational, behavioral (readiness to a certain behavior in the situation of personal default). The final version of the method measures 3 parameters (“Awareness”, “Motivation”, “Behavior in the situation of personal default”) and includes 12 scales for assessing different parameters. “Awareness” parameter is measured with the help of scales “Active awareness” and “Passive awareness”. “Motivation” parameter is diagnosed with the help of scales “Enjoying in using a credit”, “Transforming a dream into reality, desire to speed up time”, “Fear of credits, financial rigorism”, “Accepting a credit as a norm of life”, “Altruistic behavior”, “Orientation on target “large-scale” usage of money”. Parameter “Strategy of behavior in the situation of personal default” is assessed by means of scales “Search for productive variants of a problem solving”, “Avoidance of a problem, escape behaviour”, “Public and economic activity”, “Target search for help in social network”. The paper presents the results of the psychometric assessment of the questionnaire (inner consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity of the scales) that prove its applicability in scientific research. The authors discuss the perspectives of the questionnaire application.

Key words: attitude towards credit, personal default, psychodiagnostics.

PEDAGOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY


PUPILS’ MASTERING OF MENTAL OPERATIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Berberian H.S. pp.167-179

Abstract: The development of individual abilities is the subject of study in various directions of contemporary psychology: developmental psychology, psychology of learning and psychology of abilities. An essential component of the purposeful development of abilities is mental operations mastering.

The aim of the article is to study pupils' mastering of mental operations on the example of educational programs in the Russian language in elementary school. This study is particularly relevantin the light of new educational standard for general education school. V. D. Shadrikov’s theory of systemogenesis and abilities constitutes theoretical and methodological bases of the study.

A study was conducted to determine the possibility of pupils’ mastering of mental operations based on the analysis of texts of the Russian language educational programs. The Russian language textbooks of primary education (1, 2 and 3 years) by V. P. Kanakina and V. G. Goreckii constituted the sample of the present study. The qualitative analysis allowed us to define the main types of mental operations that may be formed in the course of mastering this material. In quantitative terms, the mental operations of matching, functional significance identification, distinction and analysis have the greatest potential for development at the Russian language lessons; their degree differs depending on the topic of the lesson.

The practical significance of the study is that it may contribute to increasing educational activity efficiency by means of pupils’ successful mastering of mental operations. Thus, the mental operations considered as conscious mental activities, make up the basic core of pupils’ thinking and can be purposefully trained within educational process in elementary school.

Key words: mental operations, thinking, abilities, elementary school, the theory of abilities.

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