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SOCIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION


WHERE IS CAPITALISM? A BIG DATA ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AREA IN THE XIX AND XX CENTURIES

by S. Roth, N.A. Trofimov, A. Ye. Mkrtichyan pp.6-26

Abstract: Foresights and futures studies critically depend on the adequacy of our knowledge of the present and the past. This article tests whether the Russian speaking world may be adequately described as secularised and capitalist language area between 1800 and 2000. We are using the Google Ngram Viewer to chart and interpret time series plots of combined frequencies of pertinent keywords in the largest Internet book corpus, the Google Books corpus. The results confirm a growing functional differentiation and suggest that the Russian language area is a secularised, politicised, and scientificised language area which has never been dominated by the economy. Since the First World War, politics became an absolutely dominating, hypertrophied function system. Science became increasingly important in the XX century, particularly in times of the Cold War, being the second most important system in the Russian language area, followed by mass media, law and economy by the end of the XX century. Economy was traditionally a marginal function system during the whole period before the Russian revolution, supporting the idea about a traditionally communitarian character of the Russian system of house-keeping (хозяйство) and house-building (домостроительство). The importance of economy increased only during socialism (particularly during 1950-s — 1980-s), ideologically antagonizing mercantilism of the West. Thus, the historical periods of divulgation of socialist views and criticism of capitalism and exploitation overlapped with periods of strengthening positions of this function system within the Russian language area, which alludes to a certain similarity of programmes, standing behind socialist and capitalist societies. We conclude that the sample period may not be characterised as a period with the predominance of political economy or capitalism if we associate capitalism or political economy with any form of over-average importance or even dominance of the economy. This finding contradicts popular commonsense statements, as well as statements memorized within the literature of the political economy and socialism regarding macro-social evidence of capitalism in Russia between 1800 and 2000.

Keywords: culturomics, secularization, Google Ngram Viewer, social systems, Luhmann, performativity.

POLITICAL INSTITUTES AND PROCESSES


SEPARATISM IN WESTERN EUROPE: A XXI CENTURY PERSPECTIVE

by K. G. Kholodkovsky pp.27-37

Abstract: The author analyses dissimilarities between contemporary separatist movements in several Western European countries and those that developed there in the XX century, with special attention to what differs Western European phenomena from separatism in Eastern Europe and other regions of the world today. In the greater part of the contemporary world including Western Europe, separatism was in the past a radical and often armed protest, but today it has acquired mass support and democratic characteristics and resorts to parliamentary political methods. Contemporary separatism in Western Europe has regional interests rather than ethnic roots at its core. Several regions (Catalonia in Spain, Flanders in Belgium, and some regions in Northern Italy) are ahead in social and economic development in comparison with the other parts of their respective countries, and they seek to get rid of the burden of responsibility to support the least developed regions. The legal democratic character of separatist movements and their mass support, which is of a much higher level than the support for radical separatism in the past does not mean, however, that all those involved really aspire to leave the present state and to opt for new statehood. It is more likely that in the future the majority will be satisfied with a considerable expansion of regional autonomy, on condition that the central government does not provoke the radicalization of these sentiments through its own rigid politics, as is happening at present in Spain. Therefore, a distinction must be drawn between secessionism aimed at gaining independence and new statehood, and separatism calling for independence but ready to be satisfied with a wider autonomy within the boundaries of the existing state.

Keywords: separatism, secession, self-determination, ethnic problems, Сatalonia, Scotland, Flanders, level of development, regional problems, autonomy.

GREAT PARIS AND GREAT MOSCOW: MODERNIZATION PLANS AND INNOVATION

by Ch. Vaudelin pp. 38-49

Abstract: The article examines the innovation policy, implemented by the leadership of global urban projects — “Greater Paris” and “Greater Moscow”. Paris and Moscow, originally two large European metropolitan areas, simultaneously began to implement global plans for the modernization and restructuring of the city space that are closely tied to the active implementation of digital technologies in the everyday life of citizens and the functioning of urban space. At the same time, the political and administrative leadership, implementing these projects, both in Moscow and Paris developed their projects according to completely different logic, in spite of the fact that initially the Moscow project tried to copy the French one to some extent. The article describes the solutions introduced for the development of both megacities, their similarities and differences. The author also compares conceptual development models used in practice in both cities (polycentric or monocentric models), and describes the process of the implementation of cluster projects, such as the “seven development clusters” in Paris and the Skolkovo project in Moscow. The third object of the study is the comparison of the policy of introducing information technologies in urban expansion projects in Paris and Moscow. Thus, it can be stated that despite the initially similar economic starting conditions, the projects of expansion, development and modernization of Paris and Moscow are currently being implemented in fundamentally different administrative and managerial concepts, which is primarily due to different mechanisms for political decision-making in France and Russia, as well as various interest groups, co-opted in the process of discussion and implementation of urban development projects. The author comes to the conclusion that at the moment (mid-2018) the modernization project of “Greater Moscow” is more effective than the “Greater Paris” project for several reasons.

Keywords: innovation policy, Plateau de Saclay, Skolkovo, smart city, cluster projects, interest groups, city policy, city hall, local government.

THE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF THE NETWORK APPROACH IN RESEARCHES OF RUSSIAN ONLINECOMMUNITIES

by E. A. Stepanova pp. 50-66

Abstract: This article analyses the transformation of network approach research in different areas of science, its use in anthropology, sociology and political science, as one of the most flexible research tools. For a long time the theory of network approach has developed within the framework of natural science, but with the appearance of “network field” and “social network” concepts supported by the spreading of the Internet, researchers in the humanities also got interested in this approach. Due to the change in and the expansion of methodology, network approach has become an accessible research tool for both sociologists and political scientists. Russian political scientists have added network analysis to their toolkit comparatively recently.  This paper examines the structure and basic characteristics of network analysis, as well as its advantages over other research methods. Now that the Internet is so popular, the network approach methodology is most relevant, because it allows to research complex social networks and the interrelationship between their actors. One of the most expressive features of modern social networks is the transition from online- to offline-space to achieve their own goals and to solve problems. This phenomenon is studied in the given article on the material of parents’ online-communities. Parents’ communities are divided into networks for moms and dads: male online-networks are only evolving, while female networks are numerous and active. These communities not only differ in their goals and objectives, but they also differently affect the solution of local policy problems by transition from online- to offline-space.

Keywords: network approach methodology, network analysis, online-space, online-social networks, network communities, female online-communities, male online-communities, the transition from online- to offline-space. 

PUBLIC POLICY


FEATURES OF THE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC POLICY IN NETWORK SOCIETY

by E. A. Blinova pp. 67-78

Abstract: The study was carried out through the financial support of the Russian Fund of Fundamental Research (RFFR), as part of the scientific project № 18–011–00705 “The Explanatory Potential of Network Theory in Political Research: Methodological Synthesis as Analytical Strategy”. The purpose of the paper is to examine how two approaches — public policy evaluation and network analysis are combined. Both approaches are separately used in the analysis of public policy, and we set ourselves to find out how and on what basis their synthesis is possible. Methodology: our research is based on the approach of public governance, as well as game theory and the economics of agreements (neo-institutional theory). They help to analyze the rules of interaction between actors, the principles they are guided by, and also the features of coordination within the network. Conclusions: public policy evaluation has passed several stages in its development, and in the early 21st century came close to the merger with the network approach within the framework of governance approach. Nevertheless, there are very few studies in scientific literature that pay attention to this phenomenon. Standard network analysis does not provide the opportunity to study the dynamic, diverse nature of the functioning of networks, or the external effects of political activity of networks in the public sphere. At the same time, the constructivist approach to evaluation, which emphasizes the deliberation aspects — the importance of public discussions in public policy — also fails to determine what caused the problems — the design of the program or its implementation. To solve problems arising at the junction of evaluation and network analysis, we have used game theory, governance approach and economics of agreements. Scientific significance: this research has shown the possibility and the prospects of combining two methodological approaches — public policy evaluation and network analysis — to eliminate individual limitations.

Keywords: program evaluation, public policy, network analysis, game theory, governance, neo-institutionalism.

EFFECTIVENESS OF PROTEST GROUPS` ACTIVITY: INDICATORS AND THEIR TESTING

by A. V. Sokolov, I. A. Levchenko pp. 79-99

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of contemporary protest in Russia. The authors attempt to identify key indicators of the effectiveness of the activities of protest groups, carrying out the operationalization of indicators that affect the success of the functioning of protest groups. The key indicators were: the number of participants, the number of protest actions, the number of media references, coverage of the conflict, duration of existence, involvement (internal and external), activity in communities in social networks, the degree of solving of the problem. Authors analyze activities in 4 protest campaigns: the public movement “For the Park Torfianka!”, “All-Russia movement of foreign currency borrowers”, protests of miners from the city of Gukovo and protest actions in support of the film “He’s not Dimon”. For the analysis we used Google Trends data and Yandex statistics, the software product Popsters for analyzing protesters` activity in social networks. The article concludes that the practice of protest campaigns in modern Russia demonstrates that the activity of citizens can be successful and bring results in solving those problems that have caused their self-organization. The analysis of protest campaigns in modern Russia has shown that each movement has its own unique tools, there is no single organizational model, each movement operates in accordance with internal resources and specifics, determining its own ways and methods of achieving the objectives. Features of the functioning and management of protest groups were demonstrated in the paper. In the process of analysis, it was possible to identify the advantages (high mobilization component, duration of protest activities, broad geography of the conflict, a large number of protest actions, high level of operational communication, etc.) and shortcomings (lack of broad support from political parties, lack of proper support from the state and local authorities, the lack of coverage of the conflict in reports on federal news channels, etc.) organization of these protest campaigns.

Keywords: protest, effectiveness, collective actions, the Internet, social networks, new media, power.

PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY


PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PEOPLE PRACTICING DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOURISM

by A. V. Litvin pp.100-116

Abstract: The results of an empirical research of the psychological content of tourism are presented in the paper. It was necessary to single out an individual’s attitude to geographical space, as well as personal characteristics of people who practice tourism, within the framework of the content of tourism. The attitude includes three components: cognitive, affective-motivational and behavioral. The personal component of the psychological content of tourism includes value orientations and specific characteristics of self-actualization. It was assumed that there were distinctions in the psychological content of tourism among people practicing different types of tourism. To verify the hypothesis, representatives of three types of tourism (mountainous, cultural-historical, and beach (n = 190)) were polled. In the course of the comparative analysis, statistically significant differences in the content of tourism among people practicing various types of tourism were revealed. Most of these differences occur in the cognitive and the affective-motivational components of the attitude to geographical space. The hypothesis is confirmed in the cognitive and the affective-motivational components of the attitude to geographical space, and is not confirmed in the behavioral component of the attitude to geographical space and in the personal component of the content of tourism. The interpretation of the results is represented in the paper. Psychological portraits of people practicing mountain, cultural, historical or beach type of tourism were made up. The portraits reflect the psychological content of tourism; namely, they describe a number of features of the attitude to geographical space, and personal characteristics of tourists.

Keywords: psychological content of tourism, attitude of a person to geographical space, image of a tourist place, psychological functions of tourism, emotions, subjective vitality, behavioral models.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY


IMAGE MAKING OF A REGIONAL FEMALE POLITICAL IN PR: REQUIRED QUALITIES AND CHARACTERISTICS

by E. V. Krivtsova, T. S. Rjabuha, E. V. Shapkina, V. V. Shiller pp.117-131

Abstract: He article analyses the specific character of a regional female politician’s image making. The political self-identification of the electorate is not so much oriented towards party programs, political views and attitudes, as towards images of female politicians which are taking shape in mass consciousness. The aim of the empirical research was to study the qualities and characteristics of a female politician’s image that are required in Kemerovo Oblast’, as well as the role of PR technologies in its making. The main methods of collecting and analyzing the empirical data were questionnaire and expert surveys, content analysis, and the method known as “Unfinished sentences” technique.   The analysis has revealed that the major leadership qualities that compose a female politician’s image in Kemerovo Oblast’ are determination and enterprise, in the first place. For business-oriented professional female politicians, it is most necessary to be conscientious in doing one’s duty. Besides, such moral and ethical characteristics as honesty, integrity / incorruptibility and fairness / justice are in great demand. According to the results of the research, to create a successful female politician’s image, it is necessary to resort to some PR technologies, such as publicity, TV appearances, and press and Internet coverage, press conferences and meetings with the electorate, but without any form of self-advertising. The specifics of a female politician’s image is that it should combine both male and female characteristics, yet keep within the framework of its gender and take into account gender stereotypes.

Keywords: female politician, image, leadership, PR, PR technologies, region, Kemerovo Oblast’.

PECULIARITIES OF THE DRUG ADDICTS’S PARENTAL FAMILY

by I. A. Gromova, N. I. Olifirovich. pp.132-141

Abstract: The relevance of the research is conditioned by the necessity to study the relationship between genetic and environmental determinants in the formation of alcohol and / or drug addiction. The growing number of people worldwide, who use various addictive chemicals as well as the appearance of new «designer» drugs, have necessitated the research on the causes of dependent behavior. It is mostly due to the parent family background that such behavior arises. As a result, regression models with high predictive power for groups of alcohol and drug addicts have been built. The models include a number of independent variables, such as the age of the first dose, the threat to life in childhood, suicides and prison terms in family history. A hypothesis has been confirmed that the immediate environment plays the leading role in supporting early dose and in the formation and preservation of addiction based on psychoactive substances. The analysis of parent family background has shown that the presence of addicts, violence and other traumatic events exert a steady influence upon the functioning of all subjects of the family system and can contribute to the formation of alcohol and drug addiction in future. The results obtained are important for rendering medical, psychological and social assistance to the addicted and for working out preventive/ precautionary measures to apply to the other members of the family.

Keywords: addiction, addict, family background, family history, psychoactive substances.

REVIEWS


GUIDE ON IDENTITY LABYRINTHS

by A. V. Baranov pp.117-126

 

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