№4

DOWNLOAD THE ISSUE

POLITICAL MANAGEMENT


ECOSYSTEM OF THE NETWORK PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: ESTIMATION OF NETWORK ENVIRONMENT REALITY FOR THE INNOVATIVE PRACTICES (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
Miroshnichenko I.V., Ryabchenko N.A.  рр.6-21

Abstract: In this article, the authors substantiate the concept of an ecosystem of network public administration, which is the result of the political science’s understanding of the transformation of the space of public policy and management. The development of the ecosystem of public administration is associated with the introduction and dissemination of innovative management practices, the production of which is related to the state of the network environment. The authors developed an analytical toolkit, which is a system of indicators for assessing the willingness of the network environment to participate in network public administration. Based on this tool, an empirical study was carried out of the readiness of the network environment of the subjects of the Russian Federation for innovative management practices. The results of the study revealed three clusters of subjects of the Russian Federation characterizing the degree of readiness of their network environment to participate in networked public administration of the regions: “network environment as an infrastructure of public space”, “network environment as a community of active citizens” and “network environment as an institutional basis of the ecosystem of public administration”. The authors came to the conclusion that the network environment in public online space, developing in a quantitative and qualitative format, is a backbone component of the ecosystem of networked public administration. At the same time, the network environment becomes at the same time a source and resource for the development of structural, axiological and technological components of the networked public administration ecosystem in which social and institutional innovations are produced. At the same time, institutional innovation changes are possible with a program approach, when the state creates institutional conditions for civic participation and socio-political reflexivity on problems, goals and methods of development, both on a national scale and at the level of local communities.

Key words: network public management, ecosystem, network environment, indicators of citizens’ readiness for innovative practices, subjects of the Russian Federation.

POLITICAL INSTITUTES AND PROCESSES


THE U.S. FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT OF DEMOCRACY PROMOTION
Davydov А.А. рр.22-43

Abstract: The article studies the evolution of the conceptual foundations of democracy promotion in the American foreign policy doctrine from the creation of the institutions of democracy promotion. This trend is not only a means of securing national security interests, but also an instrument for the realization of U.S. leadership in the international arena. Today the new U. S. President Donald Trump, at the initial stage of shaping his foreign policy agenda, demonstrates that his team attaches minimal importance to the promotion of democracy, which differs from the approaches of previous administrations.

The fundamental principles of promoting democracy have not been reviewed at an official level over the past three decades. Even serious reputational costs entailed by the war in Iraq did not have a significant negative impact on this course. Therefore, if the bipartisan consensus maintains in favor of promoting democracy, it is unlikely that the position of the current administration will seriously undermine this policy for the long term.

Key words: democratization, u. s. foreign policy, democracy promotion policy, universal values, Iraq war, democratic peace theory.

POLITICAL-INSTITUTIONAL AND COMMUNICATIVE ASPECTS OF INTERACTION OF SUBJECT OF URBAN CONFLICTS (BASED ON EXPERT SURVEY)
Glukhova A.V., Kol’ba A.I., Sokolov A.V.  рр.44-65

Abstract: The article presents the results of a study conducted in September 2017 in three major regional centers in Russia — Voronezh, Krasnodar, Yaroslavl. The study was conducted in the form of an expert survey. Experts were asked to answer questions (half-open and open type), distributed over several blocks. The main objectives of the study were: to determine the significance of factors affecting the occurrence of urban conflicts; Identification of the main subjects of urban conflicts and mechanisms for their interaction; study of constructive and destructive consequences of urban conflicts; studying the forms of development of urban conflicts and the conditions that affect their occurrence in one form or another; the identification of mechanisms and ways to manage urban conflicts and the dependence of their use on the institutional environment, as well as the direction of their use; Assessment of the effectiveness of internal and external communications of conflicting groups; consideration of formats and intensity of their coverage in the information space. Based on the experts' answers, the specifics of the conflict in the three mentioned cities were examined, and a comparative analysis was carried out, which made it possible to draw general conclusions.

Based on the results of the study, the most significant conflict factors were identified, the main types and subjects of urban conflicts (public, authority, business) were identified, the structure of constructive and destructive interactions between them was identified, institutional and communicative problems in their relations were identified. The authors come to the conclusion that the interaction of the subjects of conflicts is not balanced (in particular, the power structures do not fully fulfill the role of a “third party” in conflicts), which raises the problem of realizing the interests of large segments of the urban community. This problem threatens its stability and is fraught with growing social tensions in the urban environment.

Key words: urban conflict, political institutions, political communications, public, power, business, urban community.

CRISIS OF THE PARTY SYSTEM OF SPAIN IN THE 2010S AND ITS POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES
Baranov A.V.  рр.66-84

Abstract: The article defines the causes and main aspects of the crisis of the party system of Spain in the 2010-s, its consequences for the reforms of the state of autonomies. The research was carried out on the basis of historical institutionalism and concept of sociocultural disengagement.

As a result of the electoral cycle 2014–2016 Spanish party system transformed from an “imperfect bipartisan” into a system of moderate pluralism. New parties formed in the left (“Podеmos”) and center-right (“Citizens”) segments of system, the role of regionalist parties increased. This made one-partial government impossible and the old “caudillistic” style of behavior forced the parties to compromise and create pragmatic coalitions. Voters demonstrated stability of their preferences.

The strategies for overcoming the government crisis, proposed by the main parties, are determined. The People’s Party proceeded from the preservation of the neoliberal political course and unitary state. The PSOE allowed for partial adjustments to this strategy and gradual federalization “from above”, that led to fragmentation of own party. “Citizens” played the role of a party-broker and “backup” NP, who benefited from participation in the creation of ruling coalition. “Podemos” sought to maintain ideological intransigence and, to a lesser extent, form coalition of leftist forces with the participation of PSOE, that is now unrealistic. The transformation of party system is painful, and it is not complete. The growth of instability of the Spanish party system is predicted as a result of the refusal of elites from the fundamental reforms of the state of autonomies.

Key words: party system, Spain, crisis, state of autonomies, causes, manifestations, consequences.

SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF POLITICS


THE FORMATION OF STEREOTYPED IMAGE OF EUROPE WITHIN THE WORLD VIEW OF YEREVAN YOUTH
Melkonyan N.A.  рр.85-98

Abstract: This article analyses the issue of stereotyped images and concepts on Europe and Europeans in the perceptions Yerevan youth. World view is considered by the author as a social construct that is typical for the certain social group. It contains specific mental frames, scenarios and schemes, images and stereotypes, which are fundamental for the processes of social and ethnic identification and self-identification. The focus-group discussions with different clusters of Yerevan youth were applied as the main method of data collection. The projective technics were used during the focus groups to find out the emotional attitude and the assessment of Europe and Armenia. The focus group participants were asked to choose the image characteristics of Europe and Armenia out of the paired oppositions, containing substance, emotional and evaluative associations.

The following conclusion was made based on the analysis of research data: the understanding of Europe and its image by Yerevan youth is mainly based on economic and industrial characteristics and stereotypes about welfare, economic sustainability, wealth, high-consuming standards as well as on liberal-democratic values: democracy development, equity, human rights, solidarity, freedom, prosperity and freedom of speech. Thus, within the world view of Yerevan youth the image of Europe is mostly considered in the context of political tolerance model, which can be described as “Me-Different-Other”. It is mostly relevant not to the image of the “Alien”, but to a certain referential image of the "Significant Other", which incorporates the cultural, social and political values of Yerevan youth.

Key words: stereotype, identity, Europe, youth, tolerance, ethnocentrism, world view

PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL THEORY


FROM THE STRANGER TO THE NEO STRANGER: TO A PROBLEM OF FORMING THE MODERN IMMIGRANT’S ADAPTION MECHANISMS (COMPARISON OF EUROPE AND RUSSIA)
Khlyscheva E.V.  рр.99-120

Abstract: The modern world has fixed the spatial heterotopia which is visually shown in a multi-vector orientation of a dichotomy "our-others" where cross-cultural communication promotes emergence of the new cultural patterns defining modern forms of cultural and social contacts. However, the remaining traditional stereotypes in the field of “Stranger and Other”, conflict with the changing sociocultural realities. Heterotopia breaks stereotypes and designs a new transcultural space which demands theoretical comprehension.

In this article the author analyzes the problem of preserving culture: what do we keep — culture in whole or the cultural code, presented by a set of stereotypes and traditions? Whose culture do we protect and from whom — traditional culture from globalization calls, or "our culture" from the Stranger, or maybe we protect culture from ourself? And, at last, how do we protect it — carefully preserving against innovations or actively break all traditional forms, clearing away the road for innovative development?

The transformation of "stranger" to a form of "neostranger" with the rhizome world view becomes the factor that significantly complicates his adaptation into the accepting societies. It sets a task of creation a new strategy of cross-cultural communication.

Key words: stranger, neo-stranger, world view, immigration, social integration, glocalisation, heterotopia.

SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF SPORTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA: HISTORY AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
Mihailova T.A., Studenikina E.S.  рр.121-136

Abstract: Regardless of the fact that physical education and sports have been in the centre of attention of native sociologists since 1920th these research stayed in the periphery of Russian sociology. This article reveals the history of that research area and focuses on the recent research of physical education and sports sociology. the authors analyze thesis research and articles in Russian academic journals such as “Sociological Studies”, “The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology”, “Sociological Science and Social Practice”, “Sports science bulletin”, “Theory and Practice of Physical Culture” and others published since 2000th until now. This allows pointing out the growth of research interest and emphasizing some predominant areas of recent research e. g. socializing function of sports (based on population groups’ research); development of healthy living; establishment of sports as a social institution; socio-cultural, philosophic and legal aspects of sporting activities; features of professional sports; sports’ impact on youth and so on. However, sociology publications more frequently appear in sports magazines than sociological journals. Despite the fact that Sociology of physical education and sports is presented as the branch of science in Russia, its contribution to Sociology is astonishingly low comparing to constantly growing state and public interest in development of popular and professional sport.

Key words: sports, physical education, PE, sociological research, physical education and sports’ sociology, sociology of sports and physical education, sports social institution, sociological study of sports

PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY


RELATION BETWEEN IMAGES OF PARTNER WITH IMAGE OF PARENTS IN WOMEN’S AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL RECOLLECTIONS
Shlikova Y.B., Eibozhenko V.  рр.137-149

Abstract: The article dwells upon a study of parents and a partner's images in relationships through women's autobiographical recollections. The authors base on the psycho-analytic and subjective-existential approaches in describing the situation of transferring one's own child-parent experience to the relationship with a partner. The article analyzes the similarity or difference in the structure and content of recollections about parents and a partner in relationships.

The authors propose a model for analyzing personal recollections, which includes six basic criteria: existence of the I-situation, We-situations in the described event as an indicator of readiness for partner constructive relations; activity of the main character as a manifestation of subjectivity in his/her own life; degree of awareness and verbalization of experiences as an indicator of acceptance or rejection of personal experience; a number of recollections as a willingness to be involved in different social relationships; time of a recollection description (past, present, future), reflecting the relevance in the present described events and some protective effects of autobiographical memory; strength of the ego expression as an indicator of the locus of control, identification with others, importance of relations with the described subjects of relationships.

Based on the criteria, the authors analyze the structure and content of the respondents' recollections. A comparative analysis of two groups of women is carried out: having identical or differing structural-content characteristics of autobiographical recollections about parents and a partner in relationships. The authors consider the mismatch of the structure and content of recollections about parents and a partner as a woman's unwillingness to include the image of a man (partner) in her own life story, a subjective picture of her life's path. Such deformation is explained by the authors from a perspective of a psychoanalytic approach as a result of the incongruity of the child-parent experience. The authors point out a number of reasons for the coherence or matching fault of recollections about parents and a partner.

Among them are style and other features of child-parent relationships in their own children's experience; maturity and duration of the relationship with the partner; satisfaction with the relationship with the partner; the justification or unjustified role expectations in the relationship. Differences between the two groups of women were identified by all the criteria. As a result of the research, the authors show that the relation between the image of parents and the image of a partner in relationships is stylistic in its nature, associated with the phenomena of identity, involvement in relationships and the willingness to perceive a partner as a part of their own life history.

Key words: autobiographical recollections, criteria for analyzing memories, the image of parents, the image of a partner, the subjective picture of the life path.

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBORDINATES AND THEIR PREFERRED MANAGEMENT STYLE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE MILITARY PERSONNEL)
Grigoriev M.V., Makarevskaya Y.E.  рр.150-161

Abstract: The article reveals the problem of personal characteristics of subordinates and the management style they prefer. The theoretical aspects of the question are given in the text, as well as the practical study results in which the servicemen who apply for managerial or executive positions participated.

The style of management is considered in a new perspective: from the position of subordinates, which is relevant for management psychology, where mainly psychological aspects of managerial activity have been studied.

The previous studies of subordinates mostly were done on a sample of security and military structures representatives, since this sphere has a linear management structure and clearly defined vertical submission. However, in those studies, the identity of subordinates was not sufficiently disclosed. It will probably take more than one study to solve this problem in management psychology. The essence of the problem we see is that management activity by definition assumes the influence of the manager on the object of administrative influence, and such an object is the subordinate. Therefore, to develop any psychological recommendations for effective management, it is necessary to investigate not only the manager’s personality, but also the subordinate ‘s personality as the object of managerial influence.

In the paper it is shown that the leadership style preferred by military subordinates doesn’t depend on their personal characteristics (according to the 18-factor questionnaire of Cattell) and characterological properties (accentuations of character). The servicemen applying for executive positions have a much more manifested common external control locus in comparison with the military servicemen who are apprenticed to managerial positions.

The results are reliable in terms of statistical criteria indicators, but they don’t provide an overall solution to the problem the subordinate personality in the psychology of management.

Key words: management, management style, personal characteristics, psychology of subordinated.

LABOUR PSYCHOLOGY


PSYCHOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF PERSON’S STRESS-RESISTANCE AS A SUBJECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
Volvich Yu.K.  рр.162-178

Abstract: The article summarizes the data of an empirical study aimed at identifying psychological resources of person's stress resistance, which is included in organizational processes in various spheres and types of activity. It is proved that the combination of resources can be represented in the form of two basic models — a little-constructive (Model I) and constructive (Model II), which are verified in six subtypes that focus the specificity of the regulation of stress resistance in subjects of different spheres of activity.

Model I resource role is poorly developed flexibility of behavior, narrow-mindedness of vital interests, coping strategies — "confrontation" and "admission of responsibility," high demands towards others, the importance of stability in the scope and content of activities, the ability to influence other people or the course events in the organization, the low importance of normalization of activity and professional life.

The three subtypes verifying Model I have the highest completeness among male trade workers (subtype 1) and they represent the female type of resources for stress resistance of bank (subtype 2) and university (subtype 3) employees as well.

Model II is characterized by an ability to self-knowledge, expressed in an optimal way labor activity and a desire for productivity at work, the motivation for success, the high importance of the prospect of potential achievements, the stability of the scope of activities, the prevalence of coping strategies "search for social support", "problem solving planning", "distancing".

The subtypes verifying Model II are typical for men involved in banking sphere (subtypes 4 and 5) and scientific and pedagogical staff of the university (subtypes 5 and 6).

Variables that form a low-structural model of stress-resistance and its subtypes are considered as targets of developmental impact when providing psychological support to an individual who is highly sensible to organizational stress factors and predisposed to behavior of A type.

Key words: stress; mental strain; organizational stress; stress resistance; psychological resources; individual as a subject of organizational processes.

PEDAGOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY


PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SUBJECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION MEDIUM WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
Kovaleva N.V.  рр.179-192

Abstract: This work conceives of the international educational activity at higher education institutions as an additional factor of development of students’ subjectness through self-comprehension and readiness to understand and accept culture and values not only of representatives of another ethnic group, but also of other state. The publication discloses the value of parameters of the educational developing medium: possibilities of personal and professional growth, organizational clarity, encouragement of commitment to excellence etc. Data of researches which reveal similarities and differences in impact of the stress-producing factors of medium in groups of the Russian and foreign students are given. It has been established that problems of self-realization as subjects dominate at students. But at Russians this is related to meanings and values, and at foreign students—to activity. Overcoming stressful feelings is shown to be promoted by a reflection, readiness and adequate actions against stress factors. The directions of prophylactic treatment of stresses at students are defined, including ensuring understanding of the purposes of the training and personal purposes, social responsibility; design of the individual educational program; creation of conditions for experience of situations of success from finishing these or those types of educational activity; maintenance in force of the developing educational medium. The specified measures promote rising at students of a self-rating, confidence and optimism—important conditions to cope with the stress-producing factors influencing interaction and learning efficiency.

Key words: The international educational activity, subjects of educational process, the developing educational medium.

DOWNLOAD THE ISSUE