PROFESSIONALLY IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF CADETS OF THE THIRD YEAR TRAINING: STRUCTURE OF PERSONAL QUALITIES
by M. G. Lukinova, E. A. Shcherbakova p.161

Abstract. The requirements to the professionally important qualities of a military pilot are becoming stricter due to the onward rush of military aircraft engineering. It has been proved that the success of a pilot’s professionalism is defined by both the level of development of his professional activity and by the structure and the hierarchy of his qualities as a specialist. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is made up by the concept of a psychological selection and psychological maintenance during the military pilot’s training period, worked out by D. V. Gander, V. A. Ponomarenko, and some others. Within the framework of this concept, the prognosis of professional reliability and adaptation to professional activity is ex-ercised on the basis of assessment of the professionally important qualities of a military pilot. The article contains the results of the personalized research of a military pilot’s professionally important qualities. The article is a part of a longitudinal study and it analyzes the research results of the structure of professional qualities indispensable for the 3rd year cadets, and is based on the research results for the 1st and 2nd year cadets under the influence of educational environment. The results show that the 3rd year cadets possess a visual and imaginative, as well as intuitive type of cognitive activity. They are socially active, energetic, aimed at self-affirmation, leadership, dominance, prone to rivalry, persistence and tenacity, and are self-oriented. They make friends easily, and wealthy life is very important for them. The correlation analysis has revealed seven systemic parameters out of all those under study. Here belong the following specifics of the respondents’ personality: extraversion, communicability, egoism, spontaneity, authoritarianism, aggressiveness and “wealthy life” as a most important value; all of these are directly correlated. Another value — “Having true friends” — is also richly correlat-ed but it is directly connected with the value “Wealthy life”. In the aggregate of personalized characteristics, the respondents possess a visual and imaginative, as well as intuitive type of cognitive activity. The data obtained in the research can be used to carry out correctional and developmental activities in which the cadets are involved in the course of psychological main-tenance during the military pilots’ training period.
 
Keywords: professionally important qualities, structure professionally important qualities, psychological and educational maintenance, cadet pilots.

 

MASCULINITY / FEMININITY AND MOTIVATION OF THE PERSONALITY OF TEENAGERS
by L. N. Ozhigova, T. O. Bogomolova p.150

Abstract. Adolescence is a very complex stage biologically conditioned by puberty during which physiological changes are extensive and impossible to control. They demand an especial gender competence, i.e., the ability to become aware of the extent to which an individual is ready to accept gender stereotypes and is able to understand and adapt the patterns of masculine and feminine behavior. At this point, the teen personality is subjected to a critical period of transition from the world of childhood to the world of grown-ups. It means that the teens’ ideas of themselves are changing, their social responsibility is rising and they begin to realize what it means to be a man / a woman. The whole system of a personality’s motives undergoes a radical change under the pressure of gender norms and stereotypes. The research analyzes the connection between gender characteristics, on the one hand, and the motivation of younger and older teens, on the other hand namely, the connection between masculinity/ femininity and the basic motives of adolescence: success, affiliation, responsibility and communicative and social competences. We have questioned 200 teens. 100 of them were 11–12 years old (50 boys and 50 girls) and 100 were 14–15 years old (50 boys and 50 girls). The data-processing on the basis of five standardized techniques has proved the hypothesis about the existence of interrelation between masculinity / femininity and the teens’ motivation. The research has revealed that the masculinity index among 11–12 year-old boys grows if they are less other-directed; the masculinity index among 14–15 year-old boys, grows when they are aimed at aimed at success. High indices of femininity among 11–12 year-old girls accelerate their achievement motivation, i.e. their wish to be appreciated and respected, as well as their striving for power. For 14–15 year-old girls, the indices of gender characteristics are not explicitly interrelated with motivation. It has been proved that the boys’ striving for success corroborates the masculinity stereotype, as opposed to the girls’ to that of the girls.
 
Keywords: a teenager personality, gender characteristics, masculinity / femininity, motivation, affiliation, responsibility.

 

DYNAMICS OF ETHNO-CONFESSIONAL IDENTITIES IN THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE ASTRAKHAN REGION
by E. V. Khlyscheva p.119

Abstract. The article discusses the process of transformation of ethno-confessional identities in the modern world on the example of a particular multicultural region. The problem of cross-cultural communication in similar areas is particularly acute very much, there are lifestyles alternative to the standard norms, the aspiration to adjoin to other which begins to position itself openly increases. The difference in valuable representations closes representatives of specific groups in a narrow framework of traditional thinking, and group distinctions become a peculiar marker of modern space. The identity is not static and changes under the influence of social transformations and cross-cultural interactions. Emergence of new transcultural com-munities updates for science the searching of the samples developed and approved during historical development and scenarios of coexistence in the uniform cultural space of various traditions and mentalities. The changes in society design innovative understanding of identity. Globalization and migration processes lead to emergence of “indistinct identity” with the fragmented idea of the ethnic origin. As a result, the need for recognition which major line is “a claim on originality, fight for identity” increases (Malakhov, 2014). In this situation it is possible to speak about a cultural distance which is shown in the form of opposition of the cultural worlds of traditional and innovative forms. Therefore the analysis of cultural inter-action of the people is connected with primary judgment of ethnocultural distinctions The aim of the article is to study the levels and forms of interaction between different peoples and to identify changes occurring in the process of transforming the traditional worldview of the separate cultures, leading to the formation of new levels of identity. Special attention is paid to the gradual change in the ratio of regional, national and civil values and corresponding self-identification at all levels. It takes into account that the levels of identity associated with the national, ethnic, confessional spheres do not manifest themselves in pure form and are adjusted by other forms — civilizational, subcultural, racial, gender, sexual. In addition, the complex interweaving of cultural worlds makes it difficult to define one’s own identity and becomes an acute problem. The process of forming a multi-level identity in the multicultural regions is most indicative; therefore, the Astrakhan region, which is notable for the diverse composition of the population and the absence of the aboriginal population, was chosen for analysis. The author traces the dynamics of identity changes among the peoples inhabiting the region from the time of its settlement to the present. The proposed theoretical constructs of development adequate mechanisms for the coexistence of cultures require careful analysis. Such problem demands a complex system of methods, which is based on comparative analyt-ics. A cross-cultural analysis of identification problems is required, and this cannot be done without identifying indicators of ethnic, confessional and regional levels of self-awareness. We used both diachronic and synchronous research methods. The changes in society create an in-novative understanding of identity. The emergence of new transcultural formations actualizes the search for patterns and scenarios of coexistence in the common cultural space of various traditions and mentalities developed and tested in the course of historical development. All this determines the need to identify new principles of building identity, based both on history, religion, mentality and on general citizenship. The formation of such transcultural identity is well demonstrated by the Astrakhan region.

Keywords: identity, globalization, ethnoconfessionalism, intercultural communication, transformation, transculturation.

 

“THE PERESTROIKA PASSION” IN THE MEMORIES AND FATES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY GRADUATES (THE CLASSES OF 1992 AND 1993) AT KUBAN STATE UNIVERSITY, BASED ON THEIR INTERVIEWS
by I. G. Tazhidinova p.135

Abstract. Perestroika as a watershed in the development of Soviet society, as well as the col-lapse of the Soviet Union and entering the “post-socialism” period, are the milestones of the recent past that need a scientific reflection. It is especially important to consider the “human dimension” of the transition period, that is, the socio-cultural and socio-psychological pro-cesses at the turn of the 1980s — 1990s. If we take into account the poor state of the docu-ment database for the period of Perestroika, the oral testimony of eyewitnesses is an important source of knowledge about it. The research contains the results of the sociological survey car-ried out in 2018 and aimed at identifying the younger generation of Soviet people’s attitude to-wards Perestroika. Besides, the interviewees were asked in what way the changes had affected their values and life prospects, and their way of life. We have analyzed 22 in-depth interviews of the full-time Historical Department graduates’ (the classes of 1992 and 1993) at Kuban State University.For many of the graduates, changes brought about by Perestroika were of particular significance, since they amended their professional growth plans (at the very least, their career development as party members collapsed). The results of the research allow us to conclude that the student youth’s perception of social changes had its dynamics but mainly came down to passive observation. At its first stages, Perestroika was perceived with enthusiasm, yet social problems on its way gave rise to skepticism. On the other hand, democratic trends at the Department of History itself have improved the scope of research work. According to the interviewees, the worst aftereffect of Perestroika was the collapse of the USSR. Yet, their personal recollections concerning daily routine in the late 1980s — early 1990s are positive, which is due to young age optimism and diverse student life at the Department.
 
Keywords: perestroika, late 1980s-early 1990s, Department of History at KubSU, students, lectures, the Dean, daily routine, vocational self-determination, public sentiment.

 

THE ORGANIZATIONAL BASIS FOR THE UNITY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION STATE POLICY IN ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY
by Y. A. Ponomarenko p.102

Abstract. In modern studies of national security policy, attention is drawn to the interaction of various authorities and the problem of ensuring the unity of security policy. In the conditions of Russia, this problem takes on a specific due to the peculiarities of the national model of federalism and the policy pursued to ensure the vertical of governance. At the present stage of scientific research, the mechanisms and practices of interaction between various levels of government in the implementation of national security policies have not yet been studied. In the conditions of the Russian Federation, special mechanisms are formed for the interaction of the federal authorities and the authorities of the constituent units in pursuing the policy of ensuring national security. Based on the analysis of the institutions of the Astrakhan and Volgograd regions, the development of mechanisms for interaction between authorities at different levels was revealed. The role of specific government bodies whose activities contribute to ensuring the unity of security policy is disclosed. The importance of the institution of the antiterrorist commissions as the main mechanism for ensuring the unity of the state policy of the Russian Federation in ensuring national security is disclosed. In conducting the study, the method of comparative analysis and the method of content analysis were used. The method of comparative analysis made it possible to assess the characteristics and differences in the implementation of state target programs in the Astrakhan and Volgograd regions. The method of content analysis was used in the study of official documents and regulatory acts on national security issues. The empirical basis of the study was constituted by legal acts of two levels of state power, statistical and information materials and resources, reports of state bodies of the Astrakhan and Volgograd regions on the implementation of targeted programs and activities.
 
Keywords: national security policy, national security, law enforcement, counteracting terrorism.